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A9 discover how it works: the final version of the browser created by Amazon

Amazon A9How it works A9, what kind of algorithms is based, why it is called A9, who devised it, and all that we learned about this new search engine that will have to medírselas with Yahoo, Google and new MSN that Microsoft has in beta. Lets go see it!

Entry A9 in the search engine market opens an interesting period in the war for monopolizing the user searches takes a new dimension.

With the new version Amazon hung yesterday, we will review again the topics covered in the functional analysis to find the differences, see if they have corrected the weaknesses that showed in April and discover the innovations that presents this search.

Tracing Service Customization:

When you enter A9 and a member of AmazonThe same cookie recognizes and greets you with a "Hello Montserrat"That leaves me flabbergasted and, by the impact, I can not help but make me think of a"Welcome professor Falken, ¿Would you like a game of chess?” :-)

A part of the name, show me the seeker box and the history of all my searches A9 for if I want to consult some previous results (and I do not know if they have programmed, but could also serve to know your choices in the search results that have offered you, so we can offer them better next time you are looking for something ... we'll find out with time)

About the database used by A9:

Definitely A9 uses the database of Google, instead of using Alexa (remember that Alexa was bought by Amazon in 2000 and that Alexa has scanned more websites that Google ... but Google kept clean its database and deletes each 6 months, the web pages that their spiders have been unable during that period of time ... Alexa does not)

In April analysis, commented that using the Google database but not used whole, but only a portion of it. Now we confirm that uses whole: by searching the type site: get the same number of results (approx.), Both search engines.

About sorting algorithm A9

It is to Google, without hesitation.

Offers some variation in the order of the results, but I think it is because both Google and A9 apply filters to the results without you know it, that the algorithm itself. For example, according to the language Google layout you have, when you search results in Castilian, it offers different results ... even if you insist that you want no filters through ...

It's a shame they have not chosen to use its own algorithm and compete with Google searches to see who offers the highest quality. If they use the same database ... A9 had it very easy to use Alexa ranking PageRank instead of determining the relevance of a page and thus influence the sorting algorithm results. But it seems clear that it has chosen to ally itself to Google rather than compete against him.

About advertising on A9

The system uses Google Adwords and Google's sponsored links. It served directly from Google's own machines (you can see in the url redirection ads)

What is the value proposition A9? What differs from the rest?

Since we are seeing at the moment A9 is basically a Google with another look&feelLet's see how it differs:

  • A9 offers image search results while providing web search and even while looking at the texts of the books Amazon. It is a convenient feature that facilitates this page to find out if you are interested or not.
    Most of the functions of the web work with "drag & drop". It is the new trend in the usability of applications for the end user. Everything is dragged and placed where you want it to work or to be saved.
  • Favorites Tracing Service (Bookmarks): If you drag bookmarks to the URL of a web of appearing in a result, it is automatically saved here so you can consult it any other day.
  • It offers 4 skins and 3 different font sizes: If you want to see A9 in purple and suitable letters without glasses myopic, A9 allows it.
  • Offers "Site Info" from Alexa in its results: the results offered after a particular search are accompanied by a small icon "site info". This icon works like Alexa, activates a layer with information about the page (position in the ranking of Alexa, links to the page download speed, etc.)

No creo yo que Udi Manber esté muy satisfecho con el nuevo A9. Manber es un especialista en algoritmos, ex “jefe de algoritmos” de Amazon, ex “director científico” de Yahoo y ex profesor de informática de la Universidad de Arizona… no lo veo como alguien que se contente con sacar al mercado un Google con algunas cosillas retocadas en superficie… Desconozco por cuanto tiempo se ha cerrado el acuerdo con Google y si hay o no dinero por medio (a parte de los Adwords, que beneficia a ambos. Los Adwords de Google también están en Amazon).

Time will tell ... but I hope that A9 will end up being the chrysalis of something better awaits us in the near future ... or maybe die trying ... we'll see.

As a curiosity: Udi Manber is the man behind the name A9, which refers to 9 letters in the word algorithm in English (Algorithm).

By the way ... the A9 URL is if you want to play around and find the differences regarding Google :-)

Solar sails: Science Fiction dream come true this week

A Japanese ship was launched on Monday, with two solar sails inside, to be tested in space. Something that until now was only science fiction can be reality in a few days.

(Image: Illustration of the possible form of a solar sail)

We live in a wonderful era where every day are produced dramatic advances in technology. Although I confess that when I was 20. I was convinced that at 30, live in a Martian colony (no kidding). Now that I have 30_y_algunos, I see that everything is going much more slowly. But ceases to amaze me that things like solar sails, which until recently were only a product of science fiction, is now being used to propel spacecraft.

As with the space elevatorArthur C. Clarke in his book "El Viento del Sol" (Alianza Editorial - 1987) tells us among other stories, what a race with solar sailing and what techniques should be used to go in the opposite direction to the sun or travel distances where sunbeams are weak.

In this book Clarke is clear that while the value of the energy produced by photons on the sail of a solar sail is very low, as is a continuous (and free btw) acceleration, it is sufficient for a few days after have left Earth and thanks to the absence of friction, the ship can reach 3,000 km / h with zero fuel.

As this seems Science Fiction 100%, it turns out that it is not. In today's edition of The New Scientist He explained that last Monday on August 9, 2004, a Japanese ship proceeded on the basis Uchino Space Center in Kagoshima (southern Japan) with two candles to be tested in space.

If the sails work, fuel for interplanetary navigation would be virtually unnecessary.

(Image: Another illustration of the possible form of a solar sail)

Now only missing to dispense fuel to overcome Earth's gravity ... but we fixed it already with the space elevator :-)

The theory that speaks of power over the candles, is nothing new, the theoretical basis on solar pressure was established by Maxwell in 1860 and recognized by Einstein in his work on the nature of light. Although so far no one had dared to conduct experiments in space, directly with candles (yes they had done in the upper atmosphere ... and failed).

Anyway ... I hope the Japanese candles work well!

Some clarifications:

  • Solar sails use sunlight, not the solar wind.
  • The solar wind is produced by electrons and protons emitted by the Sun when burning hydrogen. These particles are thrown at high speed through space, but contain very little energy. Solar sails, using the kinetic energy of the photons of sunlight to propel.

interesting and supplementary information pages:

  • Description of different forms of spatial navigation:
    Science fiction
  • article New Scientist which speaks of the launch of the Japanese ship.
  • Interesting article (in Castilian) about how does a solar sail.

I robot. Or how a poor job of marketing can kill a movie

For days I've been following the controversy that "I, Robot" has unleashed in the United States among the ranks of lovers of science fiction. But I refused to write about it until I have seen the film and I could judge for myself, and discern if "I, Robot" by Alex Proyas, attentive or not, against the memory of Isaac Asimov.

And the truth is no. Even if you are only guides for the trailer of the film you would think so ... and the trailer is exactly what triggered the ire of readers of Asimov.

And this time they have looked to the promotion of the film !!
Go crap !!

I bet the creators of the promotional campaign and had watched the film, nor had read any of the books by Asimov.

I can even imagine the team preparing the campaign ...
"Let's see ... we have ... Will Smith + Science Fiction + summer ... OK ... let's see ... what's the argument? ... robots threaten human ... polis against robots ... it come ... make a trailer with some spectacular images of robots against humans, ... Asimov? ... ummm ... let pamphlets with the Three Laws of Robotics (but adding a postscript type "are perfect until something goes wrong") ... okay ... that's it ... the next please? ".

Total, that after the trailers and pamphlets (in Spain have also been distributed), began a movement through the Internet, to boycott the film and apply to all lovers of Science Fiction failure to attend theaters to see the film Proyas.

Cuando vi el tráiler por primera vez, mi reacción inmediata y sanguínea, también fue la de “acordarme de los muertos” del señor Proyas, por haber utilizado el universo de la serie de los robots, a la entrañable Dra. Susan Calvin y a las 3 leyes de la robótica y al nombre de Asimov, para promover un film, que claramente (a juzgar por los tráilers) atentaba contra la memoria de Asimov. Lo que Asimov en realidad, en todos sus libros transmite acerca de los robots, no es otra cosa que simpatía hacia estos seres que por su candidez y por su voluntad de servir a la humanidad, a veces se desvían del camino marcado y dan lugar a innumerables y divertidas situaciones paradójicas.

En el universo de Asimov, las tres leyes de la robótica tampoco son perfectas, de hecho, Asimov se inventa una Ley Cero en la novela “Robots e Imperio” (“Un robot no puede realizar ninguna acción, ni por inacción permitir que nadie la realice, que resulte perjudicial para la humanidad, aun cuando ello entre en conflicto con las otras tres Leyes.”), y hasta tenemos La Fundación, donde no hay robots… (al menos, que sus habitantes sepan…). Pero tras leer cualquiera de sus libros, en ningún caso tienes la sensación de que los robots son malos y que tienen que ser exterminados.

Una vez vista la película, te das cuenta de que si bien el “Yo, Robot” de Proyas no tiene nada que ver alguna de las 9 historias cortas que recoge el libro homónimo, el espíritu final de la historia tampoco está en contradicción con el espíritu de Asimov. Sólo es la campaña de promoción de la película la que debe ser quemada, no la película en sí.

Y definitivamente, “Yo, Robot” es una película que vale la pena ir a ver. Tiene unos efectos especiales apabullantes y tiene escenas que se recordarán durante tiempo (escena del almacén de robots, con robot +1 infiltrado, y escena con contenedores llenos de robots antiguos poniendo carita de “Gato_con_Botas_de_Shrek_2”). El film de Proyas también explora temas como las grandes corporaciones y sus políticas internas, la dependencia humana por todo lo que es tecnología y los prejuicios humanos ante lo desconocido.

I'd rather not explain anything more about the film so that the reader still has not seen it can go to the movies and enjoy it ... even if you've seen the trailer ... better forget about it and enter the projection room with open mind.

(Five minutes from the end, ask yourself who the murderer ... to see if you can guess :-))

Discover how the creator of Radio Rivendell and how a radio works on Internet

Entrevista a Anders Dahlgren

Anders Dahlgren (the one in the picture), A Swede, 29, CapGemini consultant working on Sony Ericsson, is the creator of the first radio station that broadcasts music of epic fantasy genre, 24 hours a day, designed to acclimate roleplaying.

In the article: "If you're an Elf, now you have your radio station"Said the discovery of this radio station where you can listen to any time of day without interruption, the soundtracks of films like" The Lord of the Rings "and" Braveheart "or soundtracks of games like Neverwinter Nights and Warcraft III.

Following the aforementioned article, Anders has been kind enough to satisfy my curiosity about him and this fabulous radio station that broadcasts over the Internet since 2002 and has allowed it to entrevistase

How did Radio Rivendell?

Well ... it began as a diversion from some friends that played a role. We had several CD's with different music we used to liven up the games. One day, I was testing a Shoutcast server and one of my friends suggested us to use this server to listen to our songs, rather than CDs. Radio Rivendell was born that day.

(Note: SHOUTcast is Nullsoft technology that lets you create online radio stations created with Shoutcast stations are automatically tuned with WinAmp [also Nullsoft].).

What is the target, your target audience?

Anyone interested in good fantastic music.

What are the sources of income of Radio Rivendell?

Mainly donations from listeners. Although all the money we receive we use it to pay the new server on which emits Radio Rivendell. So in the background ... returns to the listeners themselves. Unfortunately, with these revenues we do not cover all expenses that yields the station.

It all started as something small, and now we have become a community. Now I have to stay online, as long as listeners, but I have to find a way to reward everyone who makes it possible. Without going any further, a Finnish friend is the one who makes it possible for us now to have 200 users connected simultaneously.

How have you grown the station?

At first only were broadcasting commercial fantastic music (like "Lord of the Rings") we had on CD. But as time has gone by and more people have been known Radio Rivendell, many composers nonprofit, send me your songs. In return, our listeners can appreciate their music and they are disclosed. Now they begin to come some small record companies to offer their titles. And we have some "success stories" explained on several websites.

What makes happiest is to see who can give musicians something they deserve and have earned.

Tell us about your work outside the radio station:

For 4 years, I work as a consultant for one of the largest consulting firms in the world: CapGemini.

Generally, I am assigned to Sony Ericsson, where he developed new mobile phones.

I love work allows me to fully enjoy all kinds of gadgets! And besides, I just trying absolutely all phones are released to the market.

What do you like about the radio station?

Above all, that since has grown, people really appreciate the music that we issue. I do not receive many emails, but I get are really giving me energy to keep working hard.

Another great source of energy is when artists contact me directly and I request that their songs are issued by our radio!

Some labels, such as Waerloga Records (Swedish company), are making music compilations and we apply what songs to include in their CD's. So Radio Rivendell has begun to be a small showcase for lesser known artists. And this is precisely what I want, help all brilliant musicians that are out there that are more known.

What are you most proud of?

As I said before, above all, that artists come to me. I also like Radio Rivendell search on Google and see us mentioned in many places.

When I read that one of the artists being promoted on Radio Rivendell has sold CD's thanks to us, also I'm glad a lot.

And to finish,
where do you see yourself in 10 years?

With Radio Rivendell? Hmmm ... personally, I see vivendo me in a hot country, with beach, cheap drinks and a direct Internet connection :-)

Hopefully in 10 years, Radio Rivendell still alive and has grown tremendously. Now we have reached the 207 simultaneous listeners. Perhaps then we are the largest and Shoutcast station!
It is possible that at this time we are no longer specialized in fantastic music. Now we play some music outside the genre but it sounds good in what is our specialization. But who knows in ten years ...

My dream would be to devote full time Radio Rivendell. Now I can only devote to the station on weekends and some evenings.


That Ehlonna, goddess of forests, hear you and make your wishes come true.
Since we also want it so.

Radio Rivendell can be heard from their own website: Radio Rivendell or by downloading the WinAmp and looking for Radio Rivendell between preset radio stations.

If you're an Elf, now you have your radio station

If you've ever noticed that in the light of the stars and moon could see twice as far as other people ... if when others were bewitched by a girl, you permanecías completely immune ... if you always find right doors where others only see walls ... and you've always known that you do not need eight hours sleep ... do not hesitate, for your elven blood veins.

Mood to also test the new interface download programs ... and incidentally, why not upgrade my WinAmp, decided to get out the new version of this player sounds ... And thank goodness I did, the discovery was of the highest caliber!

On one side the same WinAmp is infinitely better than the previous version. By default includes 2 skins, the classic orange and black version and a much more modern and well designed in gray and blue. As for functionalities include automatic default lists the songs that we hear, of which we have heard more recently and etc. other variants. But the most spectacular is the inclusion in the same interface WinAmp TV stations and radio stations.

And it is among the radio stations where the pearl of my discoveries is: Radio Rivendell, A station where only music is played New Age, chosen among the best of the genre and as varied sources as soundtracks Braveheart type films, The Mission, Dune, Pearl Harbor, Gladiator, The Lord of the Rings and many other original titles the fantasy and science fiction, as well as soundtracks for video games such as Warcraft III, Neverwinter Nights or Morrowind.

Although the best thing is that you find that you are not alone, there are more people like you, listen to this music, which is fascinated by some tastes and aesthetics that are completely different from the rest of mortals. From the same WinAmp you can see how many listeners are connected at that moment to the station.

The station is on the network from a year ago, according declare themselves on their website Radio Rivendell, music is meant to be the background music in roleplaying. No speakers or interruptions. Most music is instrumental.

It's just great.

If you want to hear no more you have to look Radio Rivendell in the search engine box that appears in the WinAmp v5.03c, pressing Internet Radio.

You can download the WinAmp from Softonic (step ... and you admire their new website).

Nanotube 04: and maybe we can build our space elevator

Leo these days are being held in Guadalajara, Mexico, the International Congress Nanotube 04. The theme of the congress will revolve intone the many applications that nanotubes 100 times stronger than steel and six times lighter .

Hace unos 7 años pasé numerosas noches chateando con un grupo de gente acerca de la posibilidad de construir un ascensor espacial… Nuestro chat formaba parte del IRC Hispano y estaba dedicado a la Ciencia Ficción. Todo empezó con la publicación de 3001 La Odisea Final, de Arthur C. Clarke, 1997 Edicions 62. La última entrega de 2001 Odisea del Espacio.

En el mundo que nos presentaba Clarke, los humanos de la Tierra habían construido un anillo alrededor del planeta, en órbita geoestacionaria, atado a la Tierra por unas torres situadas en el ecuador. La idea puede parecer descabellada, pero no lo es. Tal como explica Clarke en el epílogo de su libro, las estaciones espaciales ligadas a la Tierra por un ascensor espacial fueron ideadas sobre una base científica por el ingeniero de San Petersburgo Yuri Artsutanov en 1982.

According to Artsutanov it is theoretically possible to install a cable between Earth and a satellite will always float above the same point of Ecuador (orbit that are most communications satellites). From that base, it could establish a space elevator and could raise and lower payloads using the force of gravity and a small electric motor.

For interplanetary navigation this would be ideal as well as avoid the danger of takeoffs and landings, noise and environmental risks are avoided. The costs of all space missions would be reduced drastically.

A nosotros, los del Chat de Ci-Fi, no nos pareció nada raro… ya estábamos acostumbrados a este tipo de artefactos. También sabíamos que el único inconveniente es encontrar un material que no colapse sobre su propio peso cuando tenga una largada de 36.000 Km (nota: es el mismo problema que tenían con el cable que debía sujetar el Prestige, hundido en las costas gallegas).


No hace ni un año… seguíamos discutiendo algunos de nosotros, si ya era posible construir nuestro ascensor espacial… Cuando hoy he leído el artículo de acerca del congreso de Nanotubos, una gran sonrisa ha aparecido en mi rostro, y he empezado a recopilar material para la próxima discusión. Porque aunque imagino que la aplicación de los nanotubos va a ir para largo y hacia otro lado, es sin duda una noticia fuera de lo común que se realice un congreso dedicado a este tema y en concreto, a la aplicación de los nanotubos a la vida civil.

In an interview with Mauricio Terrones, Mexican physicist who received a UNESCO award in 2001 for his research in this field, said about applications of nanotubes "The electronics company Samsung is already testing monitors that use nanotubes because they have very good definition of images, not heat, consume much less power and are cheaper, but there are also other applications for microscopes and to develop new plastics and cement stronger. "

I hope someone will even think about our lift ... because the synthesis of carbon nanotubes may be the solution to find a material that will withstand enormous pressures and yet be flexible and elastic, just what us all we need to realize the elevator (... well we lacked this ... :-) and inverter).

What is the Hilltop algorithm?

Since March 2004, Google gives less value to the links come from pages with similar IP to yours, so do not need to cheat to change your PageRank and therefore improve your SEO: Google knows.

A filter this switch is called PageRank Hilltop algothim

Google has implemented this change in their algorithm to neutralize a trap that some experts in SEO webmasters have been doing since the PageRank became operational: to create endless small web, hosted on your own ISP, that link to your main website.Authority Pages

Also large corporations have abused the fact that a large number of inbound links you make to improve the positioning ... without going any further, SoloStocks we have links in the footer to all websites Intercom Group... and therefore on all pages Softonic (To quote one of our companies) there is also a link to SoloStocks. Since We have over 500,000 pages indexed in Google, my site receives 500,000 external links. Thing seems to me great ... but that is not 100% just from the point of view of an independent webmaster who runs a website with great content but never positioned above mine ... Google has implemented until Hilltop It has neutralized the effect of the links.

So I said ... do not need that to improve the SEO of your website, waste time including links to websites that are hosted on the same IP you ... because Google now looks at the IP from coming inbound links and has lowered the weight will greatly which have a similar IP to yours.

Effects of Google Dance September / October 2004

Unlike Google Dance Mar 2004, This September we all expected the new PageRank and cleaning the database with the consequent de-indexation of all pages that their spiders have been unable since last great cleansing, carried out in March ... but it has not happened .

Ok, ok ... let's start at the beginning ...

What is a Google Dance?

Are the changes that occur in the Google algorithm from time to time and cause the results that appear in the top positions change places and "dance".

September dancing fell short

In September 2004, Google has been limited to publish results as a month; without modifying the PR (at least outwardly, since we can not be sure that the PageRank displayed on the Google toolbar is really what Google uses to calculate the sorting algorithm results) and Google has only shown some variation in It results ... But October came, and with it, the new PageRank.

Since when Google PageRank not recalculated?

For half the PageRank of web pages in June had not been recalculated massively.

Specifically, according to rumors, they had not been recalculated since the algorithm Check Sum began running online.

Changes in the calculation of PageRank

We commented in an article in March that after the Florida Update, Google had included in the algorithm PageRank a filter to discriminate the websites of large corporations or the same owner, who conducted trade links with the sole purpose of raising your PageRank . This filter appears to remain active.

This filter is a complex algorithm itself, and we explained in the article:

What's Hilltop algorithm?

But let's see what Google has been doing these last 3 months:

25 August: big moves in the order of results

Moved first attributed to a Google Dance, but then, after a few weeks, the affected websites seen as recovering previous positions, so everything points to were tests in the algorithm.

September 23: new moves

They start running new results from all the material that Google spiders have collected until 30 August (except the homes of the websites that Google's updated every two or three days). begin serious doubts about whether the PageRank bar showing the PageRank that Google uses for its calculations ... and you think you have not updated data showing the bars, but if you use for your calculations.

7 October: begins assigning new PageRank

From October 7, some pages with zero PageRank, have begun to show PageRank in the Google bar. This've been able to confirm with the appearance of PageRank in the Google bar on pages that have been created during July, August and September, and so far showed us a zero.

Also on the site PageRank Watch, we can see some web that from that day, have the PageRank assigned or modified.

Some new features in Google searches

Searches in the pages of scanned books

We knew that after working with Amazon (A9, Amazon's search engine, the engine runs on Google), Google was able to look inside the books that Amazon is selling. Now, from Google it if you want to find results that appear within a book, you can make the following query:

book (+ whatever name, for example: book shakespeare)

This will show a first result with an icon indicating that it is a result that gives the words you want and appearing in a book. In fact, the search is done on database of scanned books using Google.

The books belong to several online bookstores, not just Amazon.

In all likelihood, during this year we will discover more things about Google Dance September / October 2004 ...

La nave Cassini y la sonda Huygens ya están llegando a Saturno… con mi mensaje en su interior

Aparte de lo maravilloso que es poder conocer más a fondo Saturno y conseguir que Huygens aterrice en Titán, la llegada de esta nave y su sonda a Saturno nos recuerda que han pasado ya 7 años desde que se recogieron, por Internet, los mensajes que viajan en el interior de la Huygens.Sonda Huygens aterrizando en Titán

Después de 7 años navegando por el espacio, la Cassini y la Huygens llegan a su primer destino: Saturno.

Sin duda, muchos de los que como yo, en lugar de navegar por el espacio nos tenemos que conformar con navegar por el cyber-espacio, recordarán la recogida de mensajes que se llevó a cabo hace justamente 7 años, con la intención de grabarlos todos en un disco y dejarlos en el interior de la sonda Huygens.

La Huygens tiene como misión aterrizar en una de las 31 lunas de Saturno, el planeta Titán. En principio la Cassini entrará en órbita de Saturno el 30 de este mes, soltará a la Huygens en diciembre y a mediados de enero, ésta última, debería aterrizar en Titán.

Titán es un planeta especialmente interesante porque tiene atmósfera, terrenos montañosos y parece contener fluidos (aunque son más tipo petróleo que tipo agua).Imagen real de Titán

La misión es de la NASA, pero participan en ella 17 países, entre ellos España. La recogida de mensajes se llevó a cabo desde la web de la ESA (Agencia Espacial Europea) unos meses antes del despegue de las naves en 1997 y tuvo bastante repercusión entre los aficionados a la astronomía (sobre todo entre los aficionados a la astronomía y a Internet). Fue una de las primeras experiencias de “desborde incontrolado de audiencia” que sufrió la ESA… porque si no recuerdo mal en menos de 48 horas tuvieron que cerrar la solicitud de mensajes y a los que habíamos tenido la suerte de poder dejar los nuestros, nos habían prometido obtener (no sé si pagando o no pagando, ya no lo recuerdo) una copia (versión barata) del disco que se dejaría en el interior de la sonda. Cuando todo terminó, nunca más se supo del famoso disco.

Durante los 7 años que han transcurrido, me he preguntado muchas veces cómo se supone que un posible extraterrestre, pueda llegar a leer un disco grabado en la Tierra. El disco era de algún material de estos que dura tiempo y no se estropea con los cambios de temperatura ni las radiaciones. Grabado con láser. En las novelas de Ciencia Ficción, este tipo de mensajes siempre llegan a una civilización tan avanzada que no importa cómo sea el soporte ni en qué idioma o grifos en los que esté, ellos pueden acabar leyéndolo… Pero nuestros posibles amigos de Titán, como no han dado señales de vida hasta ahora (ni emisiones de radio ni cualquier otro tipo de onda electromagnética, ni luces en la noche, ni nada por el estilo), si existen, no parece que vayan a ser muy avanzados tecnológicamente hablando (podrían ser globos de gas que se comunican telepáticamente… o podrían estar en varios planos dimensionales…vete tú a saber)… pero en principio, todo apunta a que lo van a tener muy crudo para leer el mensaje.

Esto, si nuestros amigos de Titán no destruyen la sonda nada más aparecer en su impoluta atmósfera. Porque, ¿qué ocurriría aquí en la Tierra si llegase una sonda extraterrestre en pleno día e intentase aterrizar en cualquier parte? (no hay cartografías exactas de Titán que yo sepa, así que la nuestra aterrizará justamente, en “cualquier parte”). Yo creo que se la cargarían. A la que se descubriese su aproximación a la Tierra, empezarían a solicitar identificación a la nave robótica, y al no responder… me imagino lo peor.

Bueno dejando este tema aparte… si descubro qué ha pasado con los discos lo escribiré en un próximo artículo. Si algún lector también dejó mensajes estaría bien que nos contase su experiencia y si lo desea nos informase de qué escribió.

Mi mensaje fue de lo más vulgar: “petons desde Sabadell” (limitaban los caracteres, tampoco podía poner según qué :-))

Enlace la página web de la NASA: misión Cassini-Huygens

What is Metcalfe's Law?

Why do Google and eBay open their source code?

Quick to "why" answer: so what is the logical evolution of a Save the Metcalfe a Red Group. If you are interested in topics ... read on.

Lets start by the beginning:

What is a Network Metcalfe?

A Save the Metcalfe is a business with a particular structure thus generating value from Metcalfe's Law.

(... yeah okay, thank you)

What is Metcalfe's Law?

Metcalfe's Law postulates that the value of a network increases as the square of the number of system users. This is not true 100% (after I explain why), but the truth is that this law is of great application to determine the expected growth for a business and creating value that is linked to this growth.

Consider this ...

The structure of traditional business

(Whether they are online as if you are offline)

In a traditional business, a provider offers a service or sell a product to a number "n" of customers. And the number of potential transactions to be performed in a given repeat customers without time, exactly equals the number of customers you have. (See Figure 1)

Traditional business

Image 1: Business with traditional structure

The value of this business depends on the number of customers who have (of course, there are more factors that influence business value, but in a hypothetical formula for calculating the value, our "n" is one of the variables ... and it is in this article we will analyze).

In a traditional business, the number of possible transactions grows linearly. That is: +1 customer equals +1 possible transaction.

The structure of business networking

Hay ciertos negocios, como el de una red telefónica, que no funcionan como un negocio tradicional. Todos los usuarios son oferta y demanda a la vez (emiten llamadas y reciben llamadas), así que el número de posibles transacciones es prácticamente n^2 (“n” al cuadrado) … y digo “prácticamente” porqué en realidad es n*(n-1) ya que la oferta son todos los usuarios, pero la demanda, son todos menos tú mismo… no se realizan llamadas sobre uno mismo. (En el resto del artículo, consideraremos que es n^2 para no complicar las fórmulas, pero por favor, téngase en consideración).

The first person to apply a law on this kind of behavior in a business was Robert Metcalfe (or so the legend goes), inventor of the Ethernet when Xerox invented the first laser printer in 1974 and did not know how to connect more than one computer while this printer. Metcalfe's Law It postulates that the value of a networked system grows at approximately the square of the number of users of the network itself. (See Figure 2)

Save the Metcalfe

Image 2: Business Network structure Metcalfe

Hence, businesses with circular structures where all users can be supply and demand at the same time, are called Metcalfe networks.

The most beautiful example of Save the Metcalfe we have it on eBay. It tends to perfection, specifically, in its C2C (consumer to consumer) aspect. Any user is a potential seller and any user is a potential buyer. Its growth is the closest to n ^ 2 that we can find on the Internet.

The webs of contacts that are proliferating so much in recent years, are also clear examples of beautiful redes de Metcalfe perfectly round. And I say round, because there are networks whose structure is not round like the one in image 2. They are networks where there is clearly one side with supply and another with demand. In that case, the number of potential transactions is still supply * demand, but it does not tend to the square since they are different numbers. Of course, they are raised to a coefficient that is greater than 1, which would be that of the traditional business; but it is less than 2, which would be a perfect Metcalfe Network.

An example of this type of network would be not perfect, where companies sell their stocks, are not all potential buyers of stocks (except if all brokers ... then yes, you see the difference?). (See Figure 3)

Metcalfe red variant

Figure 3: Business with varying network structure Metcalfe

If the number of potential transactions in a perfect network Metcalfe 8 users would be 8 * (8-1) = 56, the number of possible transactions in a network noncircular 8 users (4 suppose that offer and 4 demanding) it would be 4 * 4 = 16 ie the coefficient network externality that market would be 1.33 instead of 2, and therefore value generation grow at lower speeds than those of a Save the Metcalfe perfect since it offers more value to its users, but higher than those of a traditional business that offers much less.

In a market like SoloStocks it is interesting to note that the greater the imbalance between the number of bidders users and demanding users, the lower the growth of the business and therefore always have to struggle to balance the number of bidders and plaintiffs .

Veamos un ejemplo de esto: supongamos una red de 8 usuarios donde 5 son oferta y 3 son demanda, el número de potenciales transacciones sería 3*5=15 y, por lo tanto, el coeficiente de externalidad de red 1,29. Si la desequilibramos más y tenemos 6 ofertantes y 2 demandantes el número máximo de transacciones es de 12. Y así…, hasta llegar al máximo desequilibrio posible, que sería el negocio tradicional (o cualquier comercio electrónico), donde hay 1 vendedor y 7 compradores (…para seguir con una red de 8 como teníamos antes); el número de potenciales transacciones sería 1*7=7 y por lo tanto el coeficiente de externalidad de red, sería 1, que es justamente lo que comentábamos cuando hemos explicado al principio la estructura de un negocio tradicional: el número de transacciones potenciales equivale al número de clientes.

Well ... if you have not giddy with both numbers and letters, and you read on, we will pass to the next level of evolution of a network and discover finally :-) why eBay and maybe Google (judging by the rumors by the network) open source code:

Las Redes Grupales o Group Forming Networks

When a Save the Metcalfe technology allows users to organize around common interests or goals, begin to appear small Metcalfe networks gravitating around a large network to which the feed. (See Figure 4)

Red Group

4: Business structure Red Group or Group Forming Network

For some time, eBay has been creating or participating in the creation of small sites specializing in certain types of auction and, therefore, has evolved into this model of network structure reminiscent of a daisy. Opening its code, leads to an infinite number of programmers begin to develop applications that revolve around the great network and eventually forming daisy petals.

With closed source, only they can create the petals. With open source have a chilling potential of possible petals to be created.

Growth Networks group tends to this formula: a ^ n, where "a" depends on the number of possible channels that can be opened, and where "n" is the number of users.

The theoretically perfect business would be one that consiguiese that for each user of the main network, possible to create a subnet. Its structure would be something like: n ^ n (I know of none and I'm sure it's just a theoretical model ... but the less, it is interesting to keep in mind).


Traditional businessesGrow linearly as the number of clients (plaintiffs service) having: supply * 1 * suit or buyers

Businesses with network structure MetcalfeGrow almost square of the number of users who have: n * (n-1) or simplifying: n ^ 2

Businesses with Red Group structureGrow exponentially: a ^ n
Opening codes applications accelerate this growth, growing "a".

If you have not already bored and you're still reading, here's a gift:

What happens when you join several networks Metcalfe?

Business 1: m number of users

Business 2: n number of users

Sum of traditional business users 2: m + n
Sum of users 2 networks Metcalfe:
(m+n)^2=m^2+n^2+2mn –> synergy appears !!! 2mn

(... and yes ... this is the Binomial of Newton studied at school! ;-)

Growth Metcalfe two networks together is greater than the sum of both growth separately.

Is not it beautiful to see the word "synergy" represented mathematically?

If you want more information about Metcalfe's Law, you will find it here.